Young children think that those who receive help are less smart, study finds

first_imgShare on Facebook Share Young children often think that groups who receive help are less smart than those who don’t receive such help, according to new research published in the journal Child Development.“This research examines how young children perceive helping behavior. Understanding what helping signals to young children is important because children, by virtue of their age, receive a great deal of help from others that is often foundational to their academic and social development,” said study author Jellie Sierksma, an assistant professor at VU Amsterdam.“We were specifically interested in understanding the inferences children make when groups of children do or do not receive help from an adult, given that help is often given based on the groups children belong to (e.g., due to educational tracking at school).” LinkedIn In three experiments with 216 children who were 4 to 6 years old, the participants were shown videos of groups of cartoon children engaging in various activities, such as solving a puzzle. In the videos, one group received help from an adult while the other group did not. After watching the videos, the participants were asked if they thought one group was smarter or nicer than another.The researchers found that the children tended to think that groups who received help were less smart, but they did not perceive either group as nicer.“We show that a large majority of young children think that groups and group members who receive help are less smart. The current research thus provides evidence for the idea that helping can serve as a social signal to children, supporting the formation of biased inferences about groups,” Sierksma told PsyPost.“That children as young as 4 years make these inferences underlines how powerful observing differential helping could be in guiding children’s view of groups and individuals.”The findings might hold significance for educators.“The implications of this work are twofold. First, the findings underscore how much children learn about the social world by watching adults. Here we show that adults’ differential helping can function as a social signal to children eager to learn about their social world,” Sierksma explained.“Second, the findings have implications for thinking about ability grouping, an educational practice that is implemented across the world with the main aim of helping children of all levels acquire academic success. However, by creating groups of children based on their competence, these practices also set the stage for group-based helping. As such, tracking may ironically contribute to the perpetuation of inequality as children observe and make inferences about group members’ competence.”But the study — like all research — includes some limitations. “It is important to keep in mind that we tested children of one age group in a controlled lab setting. It will be important for future research to address what happens in more naturalistic settings (e.g., actual classrooms with real teachers) and with children of different ages,” Sierksma said.The study, “When Helping Hurts: Children Think Groups That Receive Help Are Less Smart“, was authored by Jellie Sierksma and Kristin Shutts.center_img Email Share on Twitter Pinterestlast_img read more

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CDC says its steps have limited the spread of ‘nightmare’ bacteria

first_imgThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported today that public health laboratories identified more than 220 samples of “nightmare” bacteria containing unusual resistance genes in 2017, a finding that officials say illustrates the importance of the agency’s efforts to identify emerging drug-resistant pathogens quickly and contain them before they can spread.In a new Vital Signs report, CDC researchers said that overall, more than 1,400 isolates of carbapenemase-producing bacteria were identified from clinical samples from 32 states during the first 9 months of 2017. Carbapenemase genes confer resistance to carbapenems, a class of powerful antibiotics that are considered a last resort for drug-resistant bacterial infections, and can be spread easily among different types of bacteria.Carbapenem-resistant infections are exceedingly difficult to treat and have a mortality rate of nearly 50%.While most of the isolates were carrying a carbapenem resistance gene that is familiar in the US healthcare system, 221 isolates were carrying resistance genes that are less common in the United States but are known to cause and spread carbapenem-resistant infections and outbreaks in hospitals in other parts of the world.In addition, screening of healthcare contacts of infected patients by seven regional public health labs found that 1 in 10 were colonized with these bacteria.CDC Principal Deputy Director Anne Schuchat, MD, said at a news conference that while the findings are troubling given the severity of carbapenem-resistant infections and their ability to spread in healthcare settings, they highlight some good news: The agency’s updated containment strategy for new and emerging forms of antibiotic resistance appears to be having an impact.”The bottom line is that resistance genes with the capacity to turn regular germs into nightmare bacteria have been introduced into many states, but with an aggressive response, we’ve been able to stomp them out promptly, and stop their spread between people, between facilities, and between other germs,” Schuchat said.Direct response helps slow CRE spreadThe findings are part of a larger surveillance study that also analyzed infection data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) over a 10-year period, from 2006 through 2015. The investigators were looking at these data to determine the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae carrying carbapenemase or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes that were reported to NHSN by US healthcare facilities, including acute care hospitals and nursing homes. ESBLs, which confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, can also limit treatment options for infections.ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were first reported in the United States in 1988, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) began to appear in US hospitals in 2001. But while healthcare facilities generally responded to the emergence of ESBL-producing isolates with their own infection control strategies, the approach to CRE, led by the CDC, has been more aggressive. In 2009, the CDC created CRE-specific guidance for healthcare facilities with recommendations for when CRE was detected, including lab surveillance of clinical cultures and targeted patient screening to identify healthcare contacts who might have acquired the bacteria but showed no signs of infection.The investigators wanted see whether this more aggressive approach had resulted in differences in the spread of these two pathogens. The data showed that among short-stay acute care hospitals, the percentage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates with an ESBL phenotype remained relatively stable, ranging from 17.6% (116 of 659 isolates) in 2006 to 16.5% (694 of 4,211) in 2015, and declined by 2% per year. But the proportion of isolates with a CRE phenotype fell by 15% per year, declining from 10.6% (64 of 604) in 2007 to 3.1% (115 of 3,718) in 2015.”The difference seen may be due in part to the more directed response to slow the spread of the second germ, the nightmare bacteria CRE, once it was identified,” Schuchat said.The 2017 data, collected to evaluate the performance of an enhanced containment strategy introduced by the CDC in 2017, revealed that, out of 4,442 CRE and 1,334 carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) isolates tested, 1,401 CRE (32%) and 25 CRPA (1.9%) were carbapenemase producers.Most of those isolates expressed the K pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene, which is the most common carbapenemase gene detected in the United States. But 221 expressed four other carbapenemase genes—imipenemase (IMP), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), Verona integrin encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM), and oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48).To identify asymptomatically colonized healthcare contacts of infected patients, scientists conducted 1,489 screening tests in 50 facilities. Overall, 11% of the screening tests were positive for one of the five carbapenemases.Enhanced containmentThe agency’s enhanced containment strategy focuses on quickly identifying unusual antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in patients, isolating infected patients and assessing infection control in the healthcare facility where the resistance is found, screening for asymptomatic colonization, coordinating with other healthcare facilities, and continuing assessment and screening until the spread is controlled. It also calls for healthcare facilities and public health departments to respond to single isolates of emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens like CRE.The isolates collected in the study were identified by public health departments that are part of the CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Lab Network (ARLN), which was established in 2016 to improve the national capacity to rapidly detect and respond to antibiotic resistance. ARLN provides carbapenemase testing at 56 state and local public health departments and screening for asymptomatic carriage at 7 regional labs.”The detection and response capacities from the newly established Antibiotic Resistance Lab Network, and stronger state-based antibiotic resistance response efforts, are improving prevention and response nationwide,” Schuchat said.One example of how this strategy has been effectively implemented comes from Iowa. In April 2017, rapid testing by the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) and the CDC detected the IMP gene in Proteus bacteria isolated from a nursing home resident who had a urinary tract infection. Over the following weeks, nursing home staff and the IDPH assessed the facility for infection control gaps, followed contact precautions, and screened 30 residents. Five residents were found to carry the resistance gene, but the spread was stopped and no additional cases were found after several weeks.”We’ll see more successful cases like Iowa’s as state and local public health leaders continue to champion this approach,” Schuchat said, noting that not all clinicians and healthcare facilities have been aware of the help they can get from the CDC and state and regional public health departments.”One of the messages that we want to send with this is that no provider has to go it alone,” said Arjun Srinivasan, MD, associate director for healthcare-associated infection prevention programs at the CDC. “This is not something where you should feel like you’ve uncovered this situation and you don’t have resources to help you handle it.”The authors of the paper estimate that for CRE alone, the containment strategy could reduce transmission in a single state by 20%, which would prevent 1,600 new infections over 3 years. The strategy can also be used for other emerging pathogens, including Candida auris and pan-resistant bacteria. The important thing, said Srinivasan, is that there has to be complete follow-through by everyone involved once a unique drug-resistant pathogen is detected.”This is not a one-and-done thing,” he said. “We keep at it…so the infection control team and the hospital, the providers, the health department, continue to look, continue to assess, and, if necessary, continue to test, until they know that the spread is controlled.”Health officials seeing an impactJay Butler, MD, chief medical officer for the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, said the strategy, by providing better lab and epidemiologic response capacity, is paying benefits for providers who daily see the impact of drug-resistant infections.”We’re already seeing the impact of the CDC resources in improving our ability to prevent infections and our capacity to detect and respond to antimicrobial resistance,” he said. “We can’t wait until 1 case becomes 10, or 10 cases become 100; we can intervene early and aggressively to stop spread and to keep these threats out of our states.”Schuchat said the containment strategy for new and unusual drug-resistant threats complements the CDC’s other efforts to combat antibiotic resistance, including strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections and improve antibiotic use. But she warned that the agency needs to do more, and “we need to do it faster and earlier with each new antibiotic resistance threat.””The hard truth is that as fast as we have run to slow resistance, some germs have outpaced us,” she said. “We’ve had some success, but it just isn’t enough to turn the tide.”See also:Apr 3 CDC Vital Signs reportApr 3 CDC additional Vital Signs materiallast_img read more

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Posts From The Road: Ft. Union National Monument

first_imgWide View: A wide view from a distance shows a portion of the ruins of Ft. Union. Photo by Gary Warren/ladailypost.comFramed: Wagon wheels add interest to the wall of a row of buildings which were used for supply distribution. Wagons and an old cannon are a part of the fort today. Photo by Gary Warren/ladailypost.comBy GARY WARRENPhotographerFormerly of Los AlamosFt. Union National Monument is about 28 miles north of Las Vegas, N.M. It is situated on grasslands near the eastern foothills of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains in Mora County. The fort became a National Monument in 1954 and is operated by the National Park Service. The fort was established in 1851. However, the fort was constructed three times in the first 11 years. The first fort was quickly built and did not last due to poor construction methods. The second fort was more of an earthen fort and did not supply the structures needed for the growing fort. In 1863, the third fort was constructed and remained in use until the fort was closed and abandoned in 1891. During its peak of activity, there were more than 3,500 people at Ft. Union, including 650 soldiers. The remainder of residents were civilian support personnel and their families. The fort was built for protection from the Jicarilla Apache Indians for travelers on the Santa Fe Trail. It also served as a supply source for other forts within N.M. and there were 30-100 wagon trains a day passing through the area for years.For a short time, the fort was used as an outpost during the civil war. Editor’s note: Longtime Los Alamos photographer Gary Warren and his wife Marilyn are traveling around the country and he shares his photographs, which appear in the ‘Posts from the Road’ series published in the Sunday edition of the Los Alamos Daily Post. Wagon Wheel: The fort was built in rectangular fashion with long rows of buildings on the four sides protecting the center area. Shown is a view of the ruins of a row of buildings as seen through a former window opening. Photo by Gary Warren/ladailypost.comDecaying Wagon In Fort: The remnants of a wagon lay decaying near a wall in Ft.Union. Photo by Gary Warren/ladailypost.comIf Walls Could Talk: One has to imagine some of the stories these walls could tell from years past. Ft. Union was in use for only 40 years but they were vital in the history of the area. Photo by Gary Warren/ladailypost.comlast_img read more

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Linde introduces new leak detector

first_imgSubscribe Get instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270.last_img

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Vale Forges Ties with China’s Lianyungang Port

first_imgTubarão Port ComplexVale’s Tubarão Port, in Brazil, and Lianyungang Port, in China, have inked an agreement to boost productivity of their operations, exchange knowledge on safety and at the same time develop technologies aimed at cutting energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Under the cooperation agreement, the ports will work together to implement high productivity operations procedures, new world class projects and green emissions and energy related measures that aspire to become a global benchmark in the port industry.Luiz Fernando Landeiro, Director of Tubarão Port, and Bai Liqun, Chairman of Lianyungang Port Group, signed the agreement during Chinese President Xi Jinping’s first official state visit to Brazil.Tubarão Port, located in southeastern Brazil, is responsible for handling 15% of Brazil’s grain exports and 35% of Vale’s iron ore export, while Lianyungang Port is among the top 20 ports in China in terms of cargo turnover, positioned by the Chinese Ministry of Transportation as an important port for the import of raw material, energy, and coal.“The agreement comes during the 40th Anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and Brazil”Strengthened bilateral relations have enabled China to become the largest trade partner for Brazil today, with a strong focus on mineral products and raw materials.The cooperation between the two ports, according to Vale, also indicates that China and Brazil, two important BRICS countries, are looking to extend their partnership via mutual cooperation in the energy efficiency and technology sectors.[mappress]Press Release; July 18th, 2014last_img read more

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Verton develops safe solution

first_imgThe R-series load-management system eliminates the need for human-held taglines to control suspended loads.The system features a pair of gyroscopic modules and one handheld remote controller. The unit, which is available in various configurations, can manage loads of up to 20 tonnes.”This world-first technology will revolutionise suspended load-management for the transport, construction and mining industries and also many other sectors,” explained Verton ceo Trevor Bourne.Albert Smith, managing director of Brisbane-based Universal Cranes, added that with the R-series, workers will no longer be near or under moving loads. “We believe this will dramatically reduce the risk of accidents by ensuring no human contact is required for managing suspend loads.”According to Bourne, the load-management system will also improve productivity. “The R-series will reduce hook time (the time each load needs to be suspended in the air) by 50 percent or more and the overall cycle time by 25 percent,” he said.www.verton.com.aulast_img read more

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Over a third of regional trainees paid less than minimum salary

first_imgGrowing numbers of trainee solicitors are receiving less than the recommended minimum salary, with over a third of regional trainees paid below £19,619 a year. According to research by legal recruiter Douglas Scott, 30% of all trainees are paid less than the recommended minimum levels, five percentage points more than last year. Trainees working outside of London are hardest hit, with 35% receiving less than the Law Society’s recommended minimum of £19,619, up from 26% last year. In contrast, the percentage of London-based trainees receiving less than they should continues to fall. Only 16% of trainees in London are paid below the recommended minimum salary for the capital (£22,121), one percentage point less than last year and nine percentage points less than in 2017. Last February the Law Society increased its minimum trainee salary recommendations. The new rate came into effect on 1 May 2019 and saw a 2.6% rise for trainees in and outside London in line with inflation rates. Previously a mandatory minimum salary was set by the Solicitors Regulation Authority. However, this was abolished in 2014 and the SRA now stipulates only that trainees are paid the national living wage.Jonathan Nolan, associate director at Douglas Scott Legal Recruitment, said: ‘In all likelihood this story is being played out in high street, regional and rural law firms; reform and the slashing of public funding means the money just isn’t there in some circumstances. Born of necessity rather than exploitation. It would be interesting to hear otherwise.’The minimum salary for trainee solicitors is still higher than for barristers’ pupils, however. As of last month, chambers in London must pay pupil barristers at least £18,866 a year, while pupils outside of London should receive a minimum of £16,322. The rates apply to all chambers and Bar Standards Board-regulated entities.last_img read more

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Shanghai – Nanjing link approved

first_imgCHINA: The National Development & Reform Commission has formally approved the construction of a 300 km high speed line between Shanghai and Nanjing at a cost of 39·5bn yuan. The project is to be funded by the two cities, the province of Jiangsu and the Ministry of Railways. Construction is expected to start in the first half of this year, and take four years to complete.With the Yangtze delta region generating 22% of China’s GPD, the route is one of CR’s busiest inter-city corridors. Traffic has grown steadily since the launch of CRH services last year, and is forecast to exceed 38 million journeys per year by 2030.The 300 km/h dedicated passenger line will cut the fastest journey time between the two cities from 2 h to 72 min. There will be 27 intermediate stations, including stops to serve the rapidly-growing cities of Kunshan, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Danyang and Zhenjiang. Services are expected to operate 24 h a day, with a minimum headway of 3 min at peak times.Plans are taking shape for a high speed line linking Shanghai with Hangzhou and Ningbo, which would parallel the proposed maglev extension from Pudong to Hangzhou. A direct line from Nanjing to Hangzhou is also envisaged.last_img read more

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Dominica to benefit from CDB funds

first_img 222 Views   no discussions Tweet Share LocalNews Dominica to benefit from CDB funds by: CMC – December 13, 2014 Sharecenter_img Share Sharing is caring! BRIDGETOWN, Barbados (CMC) – The Barbados-based Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) says it has approved US$10 million for projects under the Basic Needs Trust Fund (BNTF 8) in several Caribbean countries.The CDB said that Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St Kitts-Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines and the Turks and Caicos Islands will benefit from the latest disbursement. It said that the governments will provide counterpart funding of US$546,000 under the BNTF 8, whose key emphasis will be improved access to quality education; human resource development; water and sanitation; basic community access and drainage enhancement in low-income, vulnerable communities.“There has also been a progressive shift from a focus on infrastructure development managed by central government to community managed sub-projects. Increased investments have been made to improve basic infrastructure and services and increase the potential for economic activity through skills training, capacity building and institutional development support,” the CDB said.The BNTF programme, which began in 1979, is a grant-funded poverty reduction programme managed by CDB which serves 10 countries.Its mission is to empower and equip communities with necessary resources, and improve their access to basic public services.“Regionally, more than US$300 million has been spent to date on projects which have benefitted more than 2.6 million people living in the poorest communities in these countries,” the CDB said.last_img read more

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