Genetic tug of war in the brain influences behavior

first_imgEmail Share on Facebook Not every mom and dad agree on how their offspring should behave. But in genetics as in life, parenting is about knowing when your voice needs to be heard, and the best ways of doing so. Typically, compromise reigns, and one copy of each gene is inherited from each parent so that the two contribute equally to the traits who make us who we are. Occasionally, a mechanism called genomic imprinting, first described 30 years ago, allows just one parent to be heard by completely silencing the other.Now, researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine report on a version of genetic parental control in mice that is more targeted, and subtle. Published in Cell Reports, so-called noncanonical imprinting is particularly prevalent in the brain, and skews the genetic message in subpopulations of cells so that mom, or dad, has a stronger say. The mechanism can influence offspring behavior, and because it is observed more frequently than classic imprinting, appears to be preferred.“The field has traditionally thought of genetics at the level of the whole animal, and sometimes the tissue. We’re documenting it at the cellular level,” says senior author Christopher Gregg, Ph.D., assistant professor of neurobiology and anatomy. “Genetics is much more complicated than we thought.” A case in point is the impact of noncanonical signaling on motivated behaviors that prompt a timid mouse to leave its protective shelter when it needs to search for food. Five genes preferably controlled by mom, or dad, cluster within a biochemical pathway that creates serotonin and dopamine, neurochemicals that affect mood and behavior. The imprinting is further customized by being enriched in subregions of the brain known to control behavior (arcuate nucleus, and dorsal raphe nucleus). When the scientists remove the active, maternal copy of one of the genes, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), they see a modest but consistent increase in the amount of time the mice spend out in the open, showing it controls the behavior. By contrast, mice with their silenced, paternal copy removed show no behavioral changes.“We speculate that a better strategy for imprinting is to do it in the cells that are needed to achieve the desired effect, rather than to do it in every tissue,” says Gregg.In total, 80 percent of 210 imprinted genes analyzed – the vast majority – were subject to noncanonical imprinting. 64 percent of those genes showed parental bias exclusively in the brain or subregions of the brain, and not in non-neural tissues, liver or muscle.A novel method that visualizes active copies of genes shows that the bias stems from differences within populations of cells. While canonically imprinted genes have just one active copy in nearly every cell examined, noncanonically imprinted genes have one active copy in subsets of cells, and two active copies in others.The results expand on previous work by another group who found a gene that imprints in specific neurons, and is reported to be associated with autism when mutated. This and the current study’s behavior experiments highlight that in addition to fine-tuning parental control, noncanonical imprinting may have a downside.Gregg speculates that the targeted form of imprinting gives rise to “high-risk” neurons that are especially vulnerable to mutations inherited from one parent because they don’t express a second, healthy back-up copy to compensate for the mistake. “We think that subpopulations of cells that preferentially express mutated genes could disproportionately contribute to brain disorders such as autism,” he says. Future research will test the hypothesis and novel therapies to overcome the deficits. Pinterestcenter_img LinkedIn Share on Twitter Sharelast_img read more

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Comet and Boots hit with doubled rents at Fosse Park

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Pinsent Masons carves out City office

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

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Businesses Buy Into Commuter Connection Service

first_imgThe geography of the South Fork and high real estate prices creates lengthy commutes for much of the East End workforce that live farther west, leading to the call for improved public transit in the region. Local town officials answered with what has been dubbed the South Fork Commuter Connection, a rail service from Speonk to Montauk.The train will be set in motion in March 2019. In the meantime, Southampton Town’s Public Transportation and Traffic Safety Director Tom Neely asked business owners at a September 26 Southampton Chamber of Commerce meeting to take part in several programs and think about creating flex schedules, which adjust work hours to fit those of public transit.“We’re trying to save time while also being cost-effective,” Neely said. “There are also environmental benefits to this — reduced air and ground pollution. Every car drips fluids and oils, and that ends up on our roads and in our groundwater.”According to the public transit director, a ride that would normally take an hour, say from Hampton Bays to Southampton Village on a busy day, will take 10 minutes by train. He said these two locations are also the most popular for people looking to hop on and off. Since there is also a state calculated .55/mile reimbursement rate for travel, if you trek more than eight miles, the $4.25 fee each way is price competitive, and will save a rider travelling greater distances. From when initial studies were done in 2007 to now, congestion has only increased, especially further east to areas like Water Mill and Bridgehampton. The town is projecting 500-600 people using the service each day, which would get at least 250-300 cars off the road.The town has created 30 additional parking spaces in Hampton Bays specifically for train users, on Ponquogue Avenue next to the Verizon Wireless building, on town-owned land. Neely said Southampton will take steps to ensure spaces are taken only by those using the rail service. For people looking to get to village centers, schools and hospitals, a shuttle service will be available. The town is also looking to partner with companies like Uber to help patrons reach their destinations. Since the train schedules don’t perfectly align with the classic work day, he’s hoping local businesses will utilize flex scheduling to give employees time to get from the station to work.There are many details about the new service that Harbor Hot Tubs assistant manager Tina Mills said she can get behind.“I’m really excited to see this get some momentum behind it, pun intended,” Mills said. “The traffic is ridiculous and I’m a big environmental-impact person, so to take carbon monoxide off the road is a good thing. But people must bend and be willing to get down with the flex program. For businesses who rely on employees who live outside the community, it could be a really great thing.”Independent/Desirée KeeganA transit check system where employees pre-pay for tickets through a pre-tax program will also be available. Employers will set it up through their payroll system. There will also be a chance for employers to purchase tickets in bulk at discounted rates to re-sell to employees, and potential monthly or yearly passes at reduced rates.The shuttle won’t be able to get to all areas of the South Fork, like far along County Road 39, where there’s an assisted living facility with nearly 250 employees, as well as contractors with significant workforces, he said. Some business owners have already pledged to pick up employees, and the transportation director said he’s hoping others will do the same. For those worried about emergencies, there will also be a guaranteed ride home program.“One of the reasons people don’t take public transportation is if they have a problem, say a child is sick or they need to get home,” Neely said. “It’s reassuring to an employee to know if something happens or they have to work late, we can work out a way to get [them] home.”Rick Caruso, owner of The Cashew Company, which takes part in Southampton’s farmer’s market and sells bags of cashews in Southampton Town retailers, said he thinks the Long Island Rail Road should be providing more trains east, adding he sees heading along the South Fork as a reverse Manhattan. “For me, this is in its infancy and it needs to be expanded to have transportation from train stations all along the Island. It’s a whole new world out here and the traffic is out of control. “Maybe we could even provide trains that don’t stop at every stop — maybe just Babylon, Patchogue, Speonk, etc. — because the work is out here obviously. But I think this is a great, great start, and getting the business community involved is a wonderful thing,” said Caruso.desiree@indyeastend.com Sharelast_img read more

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A Step Back In Time

first_imgIt’s the time of the year to take pause and be thankful. I am so very thankful for family, friends, and the special people that have been with me on this incredible journey through my life.With very little time left in 2018, the professional golf scene turned to the PNC Father-Son Challenge last weekend. It is certainly the type of event that makes golf a unique sport for spectators and players alike. I mean, most other major sports are team sports and don’t lend themselves to a meaningful but fun competition with a son, daughter, father, or grandson, and that’s what is so compelling about the Father-Son Challenge.Just imagine, Lee Trevino and his son, Daniel, playing alongside Jack Nicklaus and his 16-year-old grandson, GT; Greg Norman playing with his son, Greg Jr.; John Daly playing with his 15-year-old son, Little John; Davis Love III playing with his 25-year-old son, Dru; Bernhard Langer playing with his daughter, Jackie; Matt Kuchar and Jim Furyk both playing with their fathers, Peter and Mike. By the way, Mike Furyk is the only swing coach Jim has ever had and he deserves great credit in holding firm that Jim’s quirky swing didn’t need to be “fixed” and I’m quite sure U.S. Open Champion Jim Furyk agrees!The player list certainly had some hefty credentials as invitations only went out to players who had either won a major championship or a Players Championship. Combined they have recorded 56 major wins, 330 PGA Tour wins, 177 European titles, and 102 Champion Tour wins. All these great players in one place, surrounded by their family, and golf fans everywhere get to be part of it.What a thrill it was to see Jack Nicklaus playing with his 16-year-old grandson GT, who, you might remember, was caddying for Jack in the 2018 Masters’ par three tournament when Jack asked him if he would like to hit a tee shot. Naturally, GT jumped at the chance. Grandpa Nicklaus handed him a wedge while Gary Player, Tom Watson, a worldwide television audience, plus thousands in the gallery lining the course all watched. With one swing of Grandpa Nicklaus’s wedge, GT amazed everyone —he made a hole in one! Jack was bursting with pride and told me later that was his biggest thrill ever at the Masters. Can you imagine? Arguably the greatest golfer of all time, Jack Nicklaus, the winner of a record six Masters titles, and his greatest moment was sharing this time with his grandson as he made a hole in one in a par three tournament. Priceless.There is one thing that we discovered last week. Jack Nicklaus’s putter doesn’t know he is almost 79 years old. He might not have the distance anymore, but there’s still no give-up in Jack Nicklaus when trying to make a putt and, boy, his putter was hot.Officially, Davis Love and his son Drew came out on top, but I’m quite certain that Davis would have loved to have had his father there to watch. Unfortunately, Davis Love Jr., Davis’s father and a PGA professional, was killed in a plane crash when he was only 53 years old.There is no doubt that all the great champions, their sons, daughters, grandsons, or dads had a great time, and, in the end, everyone was a winner.The real winners in this warm and fuzzy PNC Father-Son Challenge were those who got yet another chance to watch stars of yesteryear. Just think how you would feel watching another Tom Seaver fastball, a Larry Bird rebound, or a Michael Jordan jump shot. That’s exactly how I felt watching a Lee Trevino wedge shot or, the ultimate, Jack Nicklaus draining another putt.Well, now that Tiger is back to being healthy, you will surely begin to hear the drums beating again . . . who is the greatest of all time, Jack or Tiger? I reside in Jack’s camp and base my argument on a revealing set of statistics. So far, Tiger has finished in the top three in majors 25 times with 14 wins, six seconds and four thirds. By comparison, in the majors, Jack has finished in the top three 74 times which equates to 18 major wins, 19 seconds, and 37 thirds. Now, yes, it’s true, Tiger lost a few years due to injury and other personal things, but still, Jack’s record is amazing.2018 has been a great year in golf and, as I wish one and all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. I promise the upcoming 2019 season has a chance to be one of the best of all time.bobvoiceofgolf@gmail.com Sharelast_img read more

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Rebuilding the Crystal Palace

first_imgSubscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Subscribe now for unlimited access Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAYlast_img read more

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Graham Robinson

first_imgGraham Robinson is director of Global Construction Perspectives, the leading think-tank for the global construction and engineering industry, and an author of the Global Construction 2025 report, sponsored by some of the world’s largest construction enterprises.He has 25 years of experience in the construction and engineering sector and is also a global business consultant at Pinsent Masons. Graham has given keynote presentations to industry conventions across the world, including the US, Canada, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa and UK/Europe.Graham was previously a partner and head of management consulting for one of the largest global management and construction consultants.last_img read more

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Albert acquires Liebherr muscle

first_imgThe 220-tonne capacity crane was delivered in June and was used for the construction of a prefabricated concrete building.  Onsite, the LTR 1220 hoisted loads of up to 21 tonnes and helped position components at a radius of 55 m.Albert Regel operates a fleet of 35 mobile cranes with lifting capacities of up to 500 tonnes, as well as an extensive range of heavy transport equipment.  www.Liebherr.comwww.regel.delast_img

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AGL expands in Russia

first_imgDespite the current decrease in transport volumes seen in the overall Russian market the company has managed to keep business on a good and high level, said AGL director of projects, Jürgen Weyhausen.AGL’s new Moscow office will be headed up by Oleg Kutlovsky, who has over 30 years of experience in forwarding for both general cargo and project cargo in Russia.The company’s main Russian office in St Petersburg, which is managed by Ilya Zaytsev, Yuri Nasonov and Alexey Dubinin, will continue to take care of all day-to-day operations, said AGL.The new Far East branch office in Vladivostok is being looked after by branch manager, Anatoly Zaitsev; manager, Sergey Ivanyuk; and Customs manager, Vitaly Morozov.AGL is a member of the Project Cargo Network (PCN) in Russia, Mongolia and Germany.www.alexander-logistics.comwww.projectcargonetwork.comlast_img read more

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Court of Appeal to hear key connecting-flight refund case

first_imgA test case that will further set out the law on passengers’ claims against airlines has been transferred to the Court of Appeal.His Honour Judge Wood QC, sitting at Liverpool Civil Justice Centre, said there were conflicting existing judgments on the issue of delays caused by missed connections.The test case, Miss Gahan v Emirates, concerns a passenger booked to travel with the airline from Manchester to Bangkok via Dubai.After arriving in Dubai four hours late, Gahan then had to catch a later connecting flight which arrived in Thailand 13 hours and 37 minutes later than scheduled.The case would ordinarily entitle a passenger to 600 euros compensation, but Emirates denies any responsibility for the delay to the second leg of Gahan’s journey, arguing that because both locations are outside the EU, the airline has no liability for the second leg.Mark Walker, from Bury firm Hughes Walker, said the appeal court decision will affect thousands of passengers flying with non-EU airlines who miss connecting flights due to a delayed flight which departed from an airport located in the EU, provided the passenger booked their flights as part of a single journey.‘There is now every prospect that litigants and district judges will, at long last, get a definitive ruling on what has proven to be a vexed issue,’ added Walker.Granting permission to appeal, HHJ Wood said it was clear the connecting flight issue has been the subject of conflicting decisions at first instance.He added: ‘A further decision, even on appeal at circuit judge level, is unlikely to resolve this issue, and the authority of the Court of Appeal is required. The appeal has a real prospect of success and the threshold test for the granting of permission is satisfied.’Court judgments in recent years have given more clarity to the issue of flight compensation and what passengers should be able to claim for.Last year a judge ruled that passengers should have six years to claim compensation for a delayed flight.  In 2014, the Supreme Court opened the way to a wave of claims against airlines by refusing applications to appeal in two delay compensation cases.last_img read more

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